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Bodo D'ar

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  • #352

    Story of Sapiens
    Keymaster

    Bodo D’ar

    Site Type:
    Fossil Site
    Location:
    Middle Awash, Ethiopia
    Name:
    Bodo D’ar
    Coordinates:
    https://www.openstreetmap.org/?mlat=10.283333&mlon=40.5&zoom=12#map=12/10.2833/40.5000
    Notable Discoveries:
    Bodo Cranium
    Bodo Fossil 2
    Bodo Fossil 3

    Bodo Cranium

    Site:
    Bodo D’ar
    Species:
    H. heidelbergensis
    Year of Discovery:
    1976 [1][6][7]
    Discovered by:
    Alemayhew Asfaw [1][2][6][7]
    Charles Smart [2]
    Paul Whitehead [1][2][7]
    Craig Wood [1][2][7]
    Geological Age:
    About 600,000 years old [1]
    600,000 years old [2][7]
    Cultural Attribution:
    Lower Paleolithic – Acheulean [2][6][7]
    Developmental Age:
    Adult [6][7]
    Presumed Sex:
    Male [6]
    Preserved Skeletal Party:
    Cranium
    Preservation:
    Partial
    Preservation Details:

    Anatomical Description:

    Additional Notes:

     [1]

     [4]

     [5]

     [5]

    Bodo Fossil 2

    Site:
    Bodo D’ar
    Species:
    H. heidelbergensis
    Year of Discovery:
    1981 [6][7][8]
    Discovered by:
    J. Desmond Clark [8]
    Geological Age:
    600,000 years old [8]
    Cultural Attribution:
    Lower Paleolithic – Acheulean [2][6][7]
    Developmental Age:

    Presumed Sex:

    Preserved Skeletal Party:
    Left parietal bone
    Preservation:
    Fragmentary
    Preservation Details:

    Anatomical Description:

    Additional Notes:

     

    Bodo Fossil 3

    Site:
    Bodo D’ar
    Species:
    H. heidelbergensis
    Year of Discovery:
    1990 [6][7]
    Discovered by:
    J. Desmond Clark [8]
    T. D. White [8]
    Geological Age:
    600,000 years old [8]
    Cultural Attribution:
    Lower Paleolithic – Acheulean [2][6][7]
    Developmental Age:

    Presumed Sex:

    Preserved Skeletal Party:
    Distal humerus
    Preservation:
    Partial
    Preservation Details:

    Anatomical Description:

    Additional Notes:

    Sources:
    [1] – http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/fossils/bodo
    [2] – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bodo_cranium
    [3] – https://www.britannica.com/place/Bodo-anthropological-and-archaeological-site-Ethiopia?anchor=ref892244
    [4] – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Homo_heidelbergensis.jpg
    [5] – 
    https://nutcrackerman.com/2015/04/07/meet-bodo-and-herto/
    [6] – Encyclopedia of Human Evolution and Prehistory: Second Edition
    [7] – From Lucy to Language
    [8] – https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/9659/c62f27fd5ebd22fa1eca6c450955c4219af6.pdf

    #353

    Story of Sapiens
    Keymaster

    Source: http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/fossils/bodo


    #354

    Story of Sapiens
    Keymaster

    Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Homo_heidelbergensis.jpg


    #355

    Story of Sapiens
    Keymaster

    Researchers have suggested that Bodo butchered animals because Acheulean hand axes and cleavers, along with animal bones, were found at the site. The cranium has cut marks, which indicates that immediately after the death of this individual stone tools were used to remove the flesh from the bone. [2]

    #356

    Story of Sapiens
    Keymaster

    Source: https://nutcrackerman.com/2015/04/07/meet-bodo-and-herto/
    Author: Roberto Sáez

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    #622

    Story of Sapiens
    Keymaster

    Source: Encyclopedia of Human Evolution and Prehistory: Second Edition

    Bodo

    Stratified site in Central Ethiopia, spanning the Early Pliocene (4.5 Ma) to the Late Middle Pleistocene (ca. 0.2 Ma) according to K/Ar and fission-track dating combined with faunal analysis.
    The Bodo Basin, on the eastern side of the Middle Awash study area in the Afar Valley, exposes a stratigraphic sequence divided into Lower, Middle, and Upper units dated to the Early Pliocene, the Early Pleistocene and the Middle to Late Pleistocene, respectively. While vertebrate fossils are abundant throughout the sequence and Oldowan-style tools have been recovered from the Middle Bodo Beds, the only hominid remains are from the Upper Bodo Beds in association with abundant archaeological material belonging to the Acheulean Industrial complex together with small-tool occurrences that resemble the Developed Oldowan. Possible traces of fire are reported to be associated with some of the archaeological occurrences.

    In 1976, a massive, adult, presumably male, specimen with large face and thick cranial vault was recovered from the Upper Bodo Sand Unit in the lower part of the Upper Bodo Beds by A. Asfaw in a team led by J. E. Kalb. Contemporary fauna is Middle Pleistocene in age, which dates on underlying tephra confirm. The specimen was found resting n the surface of a sandy gravel layer containing abundant Acheulean tools. The cranium bears striking resemblances to the Kabwe (Broken Hill) specimen from Zambia, the Petralona specimen from Greece, and some of the Sima de los Huesos crania from Spain. In many morphologic features, the specimen is intermediate between advanced Homo erectus and “archaic Homo sapiens,” and it’s taxonomic status is under debate. A second fossil, a fragment of parietal, was found in 1981 ca. 400 m from the original find, and additional postcranial remains were found in 1990. The latter represent a second (and possibly third) hominid individual. The 1976 Bodo cranium bears fine, artificial, perimortem striations on the face and the vault and within the orbit. These have been interpreted as cutmarks indicating an intentional defleshing by another hominid wielding a stone tool.

    #630

    Story of Sapiens
    Keymaster

    Source: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/9659/c62f27fd5ebd22fa1eca6c450955c4219af6.pdf

    Human fossils from the Bodo localities south of Hadar in the Middle Awash region of Ethiopia include a cranium collected in 1976, a left parietal bone picked up in 1981, and a piece of distal humerus. The three specimens were situated in the same stratigraphic horizon and are geologically contemporary. They are derived from Middle Pleistocene deposits containing faunal remains and stone artefacts. Hard sandy matrix initially found adhering to the orbits and nasal cavity and partly filling the interior of the braincase suggests that the cranium lay face down in the sediments, and probably the back of the specimen was exposed first by weathering and subsequently lost. A preliminary reconstruction of the face and adjacent structures was carried out by Conroy et al. (1978). Following cleaning and realignment of these pieces, which were sent on temporary loan to Berkeley in 1982, the cranium was reassembled and later returned to the National Museum in Addis Ababa. The 1981 parietal fragment, also a surface find, must belong to a second individual, likely to represent the same taxon as the first. The 1990 humerus has still to be described and is not considered here.

     

    Localities at Bodo and elsewhere in the Middle Awash region were explored between 1975 and 1978 by members of the Rift Valley Research Mission in Ethiopia (RVRME), organized by J. E. Kalb. Pieces of the 1976 cranium were found scattered on the surface at a site adjacent to one of the seasonally dry tributaries of the Awash River. Following discovery of these fragments, excavations were carried out in order to expose the local stratigraphy, and a number of additional fossils and artefacts were collected. In 1981, a team led by J. Desmond Clark returned to the Middle Awash for 2 months, to continue archaeological surveys, conduct test excavations, and obtain larger samples for biostratigraphic analysis (Clark et al., 1984). During this period, the Bodo parietal bone was picked up, ca. 400 m from the site of the original hominid. From 1982 to 1989, no further fieldwork was undertaken, but in 1990 research in the study area was resumed, under the direction of Clark and T. D. White.

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