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Klasies River Mouth

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  • #271

    Story of Sapiens
    Keymaster

    Klasies River Mouth

    Site Type:
    Fossil Site
    Location:
    South Africa
    Name:
    Klasies River Mouth
    Coordinates:
    https://www.openstreetmap.org/?mlat=-34.1062&mlon=24.387061&zoom=15#map=8/-34.160/24.593

    Notable Discoveries:
    STA3 / AA43 / SAS4 SHB / AA4SHB
    STA4 / ZZ44 / SAS4 SHC
    KRM 13400 / SAM 6223
    KRM 14691 / SAM 6228
    KRM 14692 / SAM 6227
    KRM 14693 / SAM 6229
    KRM 14694 / SAM 6230
    KRM 14695 / SAM 6100
    KRM 14696 / SAM 6226
    KRM 16424 / SAM 6225
    KRM 16425 / SAM 6103
    KRM 16651 / SAM 6098
    KRM 16720 / SAM 6099
    KRM 21776 / SAM 6101
    KRM 26076 / SAM 6104
    KRM 26730-2 / SAM 6110
    KRM 26909 / SAM 6105
    KRM 26910
    KRM 27038 / SAM 6107
    KRM 27070 / SAM 6106
    KRM 27574-7 / SAM 6093
    KRM 27889 / SAM 6108
    KRM 40243
    KRM 40244
    KRM 41658 / SAM 6224
    KRM 41815 / SAM 6222
    KRM 41820
    KRM 41845

     [1]

    STA3 / AA43 / SAS4 SHB / AA4SHB

    Site:
    Klasies River Mouth
    Species:
    H. sapiens
    Year of Discovery:
    1987 [10]
    Discovered by:
    H. Deacon [10]
    Geological Age:
    110,000 years old [9]
    Cultural Attribution:

    Developmental Age:

    Presumed Sex:

    Preserved Skeletal Party:
    Maxillary fragment [9]
    Left anterior section of palate with sockets of I1 to M1 [10]
    Preservation:

    Preservation Details:

    Anatomical Description:

    Additional Notes:

     

    STA4 / ZZ44 / SAS4 SHC

    Site:
    Klasies River Mouth
    Species:
    H. sapiens
    Year of Discovery:
    1987 [10]
    Discovered by:
    H. Deacon [10]
    Geological Age:
    110,000 years old [9]
    Cultural Attribution:

    Developmental Age:

    Presumed Sex:

    Preserved Skeletal Party:
    Left Maxillary fragment with M1 [10]
    Maxillary fragment [9]

    Preservation:

    Preservation Details:

    Anatomical Description:

    Additional Notes:

    KRM 13400 / SAM 6223

    Site:
    Klasies River Mouth
    Species:
    H. sapiens
    Year of Discovery:
    1986 [10]
    Discovered by:
    Prof. Singer [10]
    Geological Age:
    118,000 – 90,000 years old [8]
    100,000 – 80,000 years old [9]
    Cultural Attribution:

    Developmental Age:
    Adult [8]
    Presumed Sex:

    Preserved Skeletal Party:
    Right mandibular body [6][10]
    Preservation:
    Fragmentary [8]
    Preservation Details:
    Broken behind the M2 [6]
    Anatomical Description:

    Additional Notes:

     

     [7]

     [7]

    KRM 14691 / SAM 6228

    Site:
    Klasies River Mouth
    Species:
    H. sapiens
    Year of Discovery:
    1986 [10]
    Discovered by:
    Prof. Singer [10]
    Geological Age:
    100,000 – 80,000 years old [9]
    Cultural Attribution:

    Developmental Age:

    Presumed Sex:

    Preserved Skeletal Party:
    LM1 [10]
    Preservation:

    Preservation Details:

    Anatomical Description:

    Additional Notes:
    Associated with KRM 13400 [9]

    KRM 14692 / SAM 6227

    Site:
    Klasies River Mouth
    Species:
    H. sapiens
    Year of Discovery:
    1986 [10]
    Discovered by:
    Prof. Singer [10]
    Geological Age:
    100,000 – 80,000 years old [9]
    Cultural Attribution:

    Developmental Age:

    Presumed Sex:

    Preserved Skeletal Party:
    LP1 [9][10]
    Preservation:

    Preservation Details:

    Anatomical Description:

    Additional Notes:

    KRM 14693 / SAM 6229

    Site:
    Klasies River Mouth
    Species:
    H. sapiens
    Year of Discovery:
    1986 [10]
    Discovered by:
    Prof. Singer [10]
    Geological Age:
    100,000 – 80,000 years old [9]
    Cultural Attribution:

    Developmental Age:

    Presumed Sex:

    Preserved Skeletal Party:
    LM2
    LM3 [10]
    Preservation:

    Preservation Details:

    Anatomical Description:

    Additional Notes:
    Associated with KRM 13400 [9]

    KRM 14694 / SAM 6230

    Site:
    Klasies River Mouth
    Species:
    H. sapiens
    Year of Discovery:
    1986 [10]
    Discovered by:
    Prof. Singer [10]
    Geological Age:
    100,000 – 80,000 years old [9]
    Cultural Attribution:

    Developmental Age:

    Presumed Sex:

    Preserved Skeletal Party:
    LM3
    Preservation:

    Preservation Details:

    Anatomical Description:

    Additional Notes:
    Associated with KRM 13400 [9]

    KRM 14695 / SAM 6100

    Site:
    Klasies River Mouth
    Species:
    H. sapiens
    Year of Discovery:
    1983 [10]
    Discovered by:

    Geological Age:
    100,000 – 80,000 years old [9]
    Cultural Attribution:

    Developmental Age:

    Presumed Sex:

    Preserved Skeletal Party:
    Mandibular body [9][10]
    Preservation:
    Fragmentary [9][10]
    Preservation Details:

    Anatomical Description:

    Additional Notes:
    Chin present [9]

    KRM 14696 / SAM 6226

    Site:
    Klasies River Mouth
    Species:
    H. sapiens
    Year of Discovery:
    1986 [10]
    Discovered by:
    Prof. Singer [10]
    Geological Age:
    100,000 – 80,000 years old [9]
    Cultural Attribution:

    Developmental Age:

    Presumed Sex:

    Preserved Skeletal Party:
    LM1 [10]
    Preservation:

    Preservation Details:

    Anatomical Description:

    Additional Notes:
    Associated with KRM 13400 [9]

    KRM 16424 / SAM 6225

    Site:
    Klasies River Mouth
    Species:
    H. sapiens
    Year of Discovery:
    1986 [10]
    Discovered by:
    Prof. Singer [10]
    Geological Age:
    100,000 – 80,000 years old [9]
    Cultural Attribution:

    Developmental Age:
    Adult [9]
    Presumed Sex:
    Female [9]
    Preserved Skeletal Party:
    Mandible [9][10]
    Preservation:
    Partial [10]
    Preservation Details:

    Anatomical Description:

    Additional Notes:

     

     [7]

     [7]

    KRM 16425 / SAM 6103

    Site:
    Klasies River Mouth
    Species:
    H. sapiens
    Year of Discovery:
    1983 [10]
    Discovered by:

    Geological Age:
    100,000 – 80,000 years old [9]
    Cultural Attribution:

    Developmental Age:

    Presumed Sex:

    Preserved Skeletal Party:
    Frontal bone [9][10]
    Preservation:
    Fragmentary [9][10]
    Preservation Details:

    Anatomical Description:

    Additional Notes:
    Gracile morphology, cut marks [9]

    KRM 16651 / SAM 6098

    Site:
    Klasies River Mouth
    Species:
    H. sapiens
    Year of Discovery:
    1983 [10]
    Discovered by:

    Geological Age:
    100,000 – 80,000 years old [9]
    Cultural Attribution:

    Developmental Age:

    Presumed Sex:

    Preserved Skeletal Party:
    Left zygomatic bone [9]
    Maxillary (fragment) [10]
    Preservation:

    Preservation Details:

    Anatomical Description:

    Additional Notes:

     

    KRM 16720 / SAM 6099

    Site:
    Klasies River Mouth
    Species:
    H. sapiens
    Year of Discovery:
    1983 [10]
    Discovered by:

    Geological Age:
    100,000 – 80,000 years old [9]
    Cultural Attribution:

    Developmental Age:

    Presumed Sex:

    Preserved Skeletal Party:
    Innominate bone, could belong to pubic portion of acetabular rim [9]
    Innominate [10]
    Preservation:
    Fragmentary [10]
    Preservation Details:

    Anatomical Description:

    Additional Notes:

    KRM 21776 / SAM 6101

    Site:
    Klasies River Mouth
    Species:
    H. sapiens
    Year of Discovery:
    1983 [10]
    Discovered by:

    Geological Age:
    100,000 – 80,000 years old [9]
    Cultural Attribution:

    Developmental Age:

    Presumed Sex:

    Preserved Skeletal Party:
    Mandible [9][10]
    Preservation:
    Partial [9][10]
    Preservation Details:

    Anatomical Description:

    Additional Notes:
    Chin clearly present [9]

     [7]

     [7]

    KRM 26076 / SAM 6104

    Site:
    Klasies River Mouth
    Species:
    H. sapiens
    Year of Discovery:
    1983 [10]
    Discovered by:

    Geological Age:
    100,000 – 80,000 years old [9]
    Cultural Attribution:

    Developmental Age:

    Presumed Sex:

    Preserved Skeletal Party:
    Left clavicle [9][10]
    Preservation:

    Preservation Details:

    Anatomical Description:

    Additional Notes:
    Small, lightly built [9]

    KRM 26730-2 / SAM 6110

    Site:
    Klasies River Mouth
    Species:
    H. sapiens
    Year of Discovery:
    1983 [10]
    Discovered by:

    Geological Age:
    100,000 – 80,000 years old [9]
    Cultural Attribution:

    Developmental Age:

    Presumed Sex:

    Preserved Skeletal Party:
    Cranial vault [9][10]
    Preservation:
    Fragmentary [9][10]
    Preservation Details:

    Anatomical Description:

    Additional Notes:

     

    KRM 26909 / SAM 6105

    Site:
    Klasies River Mouth
    Species:
    H. sapiens
    Year of Discovery:
    1983 [10]
    Discovered by:

    Geological Age:
    110,000 years old [9]
    Cultural Attribution:

    Developmental Age:

    Presumed Sex:

    Preserved Skeletal Party:
    Parietal [9][10]
    Preservation:
    Fragmentary [9][10]
    Preservation Details:

    Anatomical Description:

    Additional Notes:

    KRM 26910

    Site:
    Klasies River Mouth
    Species:
    H. sapiens
    Year of Discovery:

    Discovered by:

    Geological Age:
    110,000 years old [9]
    Cultural Attribution:

    Developmental Age:

    Presumed Sex:

    Preserved Skeletal Party:
    Parietal [9]
    Preservation:
    Fragmentary [9]
    Preservation Details:

    Anatomical Description:

    Additional Notes:
    Companion piece of KRM 26909, missing from South African Musem [9]

    KRM 27038 / SAM 6107

    Site:
    Klasies River Mouth
    Species:
    H. sapiens
    Year of Discovery:
    1983 [10]
    Discovered by:

    Geological Age:
    100,000 – 80,000 years old [9]
    Cultural Attribution:

    Developmental Age:

    Presumed Sex:

    Preserved Skeletal Party:
    Parietal [9][10]
    Preservation:
    Fragmentary [9][10]
    Preservation Details:

    Anatomical Description:

    Additional Notes:

     

    KRM 27070 / SAM 6106

    Site:
    Klasies River Mouth
    Species:
    H. sapiens
    Year of Discovery:
    1983 [10]
    Discovered by:

    Geological Age:
    110,000 years old [9]
    Cultural Attribution:

    Developmental Age:

    Presumed Sex:

    Preserved Skeletal Party:
    Skull [9][10]
    Preservation:
    Fragmentary [9][10]
    Preservation Details:

    Anatomical Description:

    Additional Notes:

     

    KRM 27574-7 / SAM 6093

    Site:
    Klasies River Mouth
    Species:
    H. sapiens
    Year of Discovery:
    1983 [10]
    Discovered by:

    Geological Age:
    100,000 – 80,000 years old [9]
    Cultural Attribution:

    Developmental Age:

    Presumed Sex:

    Preserved Skeletal Party:
    Cranial vault [9]
    Preservation:
    Fragmentary [9]
    Preservation Details:

    Anatomical Description:

    Additional Notes:

    KRM 27889 / SAM 6108

    Site:
    Klasies River Mouth
    Species:
    H. sapiens
    Year of Discovery:
    1983 [10]
    Discovered by:

    Geological Age:
    100,000 – 80,000 years old [9]
    Cultural Attribution:

    Developmental Age:

    Presumed Sex:

    Preserved Skeletal Party:
    Radius [9][10]
    Preservation:
    Fragmentary [9][10]
    Preservation Details:

    Anatomical Description:

    Additional Notes:

    KRM 40243

    Site:
    Klasies River Mouth
    Species:
    H. sapiens
    Year of Discovery:

    Discovered by:

    Geological Age:
    60,000 – 40,000 years old [9]
    Cultural Attribution:

    Developmental Age:

    Presumed Sex:

    Preserved Skeletal Party:
    Parietal [9]
    Preservation:
    Fragmentary [9]
    Preservation Details:

    Anatomical Description:

    Additional Notes:

    KRM 40244

    Site:
    Klasies River Mouth
    Species:
    H. sapiens
    Year of Discovery:

    Discovered by:

    Geological Age:
    60,000 – 40,000 years old [9]
    Cultural Attribution:

    Developmental Age:

    Presumed Sex:

    Preserved Skeletal Party:
    Parietal [9]
    Preservation:
    Fragmentary [9]
    Preservation Details:

    Anatomical Description:

    Additional Notes:

    KRM 41658 / SAM 6224

    Site:
    Klasies River Mouth
    Species:
    H. sapiens
    Year of Discovery:
    1986 [10]
    Discovered by:
    Prof. Singer [10]
    Geological Age:
    100,000 – 80,000 years old [9]
    Cultural Attribution:

    Developmental Age:

    Presumed Sex:

    Preserved Skeletal Party:
    Parietal [9]
    Right Parietal [10]
    Vault (fragment) [10]
    Preservation:

    Preservation Details:

    Anatomical Description:

    Additional Notes:

    KRM 41815 / SAM 6222

    Site:
    Klasies River Mouth
    Species:
    H. sapiens
    Year of Discovery:
    1984 [10]
    Discovered by:
    Mr. Smith [10]
    Geological Age:
    100,000 – 80,000 years old [9]
    Cultural Attribution:

    Developmental Age:

    Presumed Sex:

    Preserved Skeletal Party:
    Mandible [9][10]
    Preservation:

    Preservation Details:

    Anatomical Description:

    Additional Notes:
    Chin clearly present [9]

    KRM 41820

    Site:
    Klasies River Mouth
    Species:
    H. sapiens
    Year of Discovery:

    Discovered by:

    Geological Age:
    100,000 – 80,000 years old [9]
    Cultural Attribution:

    Developmental Age:

    Presumed Sex:

    Preserved Skeletal Party:
    Mandiblular condyle [9]
    Preservation:
    Fragmentary [9]
    Preservation Details:

    Anatomical Description:

    Additional Notes:

    KRM 41845

    Site:
    Klasies River Mouth
    Species:
    H. sapiens
    Year of Discovery:

    Discovered by:

    Geological Age:

    Cultural Attribution:

    Developmental Age:

    Presumed Sex:

    Preserved Skeletal Party:
    Mandible
    Preservation:
    Partial
    Preservation Details:

    Anatomical Description:

    Additional Notes:

     

     [7]

     [7]

    Sources:
    [1] – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Klasies_River_Mouth_Cave,_South_Africa.jpg
    [2] – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klasies_River_Caves#Discovery_and_excavation
    [3] – https://www.britannica.com/place/Klasies
    [4] – Encyclopedia of Human Evolution and Prehistory: Second Edition
    [5] – From Lucy to Language
    [6] – The Evolution of Modern Humans in Africa: A Comprehensive Guide
    [7] – Africa from MIS 6-2: Population Dynamics and Paleoenvironments
    [8] – http://antropogenez.ru/fossil/389/
    [9] – Supplementary material to: Pleistocene Homo and the updated Stone Age sequence of South Africa
    [10] – A Master Catalogue: Holocene Human Skeletons from South Africa

    #726

    Story of Sapiens
    Keymaster

    Source: [1]
    Description: Klasies River Mouth Cave, South Africa
    Author: John Atherton

    Attachments:
    You must be logged in to view attached files.
    #731

    Story of Sapiens
    Keymaster

    Source: Encyclopedia of Human Evolution and Prehistory: Second Edition

    Klasies River Mouth

    Coastal cave complex in South Africa that contains an early Late Pleistocene archaeological sequence and fossil hominin remains. Klasies is important because it appears to provide evidence for early-modern humans by 120 Ka and precursors of Late Paleolithic technology by 70 Ka, although the dating of this evidence remains controversial. The archaeological succession begins with a long sequence of flake-based Middle Paleolithic (African Middle Stone Age, MSA) levels, followed by levels of the Howieson’s Poort blade-based industry. Flake-based MSA assemblages again overlie the Howieson’s Poort in Rockshelter 1a. After a stratigraphic break, Later Stone Age deposits (chiefly a large shell midden) cap the Klasies sequence. Hominin specimens occur throughout the Klasies sequence, but assessments of their morphological affinities vary widely. Most are fragmentary and show clear variation, but some are indistinguishable in the form of the supraorbital torus and mandible from those of living humans. Shells from MSA levels provide early evidence for the exploitation of littoral resources. R. Klein’s analysis (1976) of faunal remains from Klasies suggests a major increase in effectiveness of hunting strategies with the appearance of Late Stone Age occupations. A second analysis of MSA funal remains from Klasies, by L. Binford, suggests a prominent role for scavenging in hominid meat procurement.

    #733

    Story of Sapiens
    Keymaster

    Source: From Lucy to Language

    At the southern tip of Africa, the fossil specimens from Klasies River Mouth are associated with a Middle Stone Age archaeological assemblage. Age estimates based on uranium-thorium and electron spin resonance dating suggest that the hominids lived there between 120,000 and 75,000 years ago. Some specimens are more robustly built, but a partial mandible has a strongly developed chin and is relatively lightly built. A small portion of the lightly built frontal bone lacks a supraorbital torus and thus has a modern human morphology.

    #738

    Story of Sapiens
    Keymaster

    Source: [7]
    Description: KRM 13400

    Attachments:
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    #755

    Story of Sapiens
    Keymaster

    Source: [8]
    Description: KRM 16424

    Attachments:
    You must be logged in to view attached files.
    #760

    Story of Sapiens
    Keymaster

    Source: [7]
    Description: KRM 21776

    Attachments:
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    #763

    Story of Sapiens
    Keymaster

    Source: [7]
    Description: KRM 41845

    Attachments:
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    #769

    Story of Sapiens
    Keymaster

    Source: Unknown
    Description: KRM 16424

    Attachments:
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    #772

    Story of Sapiens
    Keymaster

    Source: Unknown
    Description: KRM 27070

    Attachments:
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    #775

    Story of Sapiens
    Keymaster

    Source: KRM 41815
    Description: Unknown

    Attachments:
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    #1090

    Story of Sapiens
    Keymaster

    Source: Afrika II: Südafrika: Human biological history of southern Africa (1989)

    …the finds discovered in caves at Klasies River Mouth at the end of the 1960s have proven of great importance for our knowledge of early Upper Pleistocene humans in Southern Africa. The thick MSA layers at this site span the Last Interglacial. Human skeletal remains were discovered in horizons of the early MSA 1 and MSA 2 deposits, for which various techniques (including oxygen isotope analyses) have indicated an age between ca. 100,000 and 80,000 years B.P. (Butzer 1982, Singer and Wymer 1982, Deagon et al. 1983, H. Deacon pers. comm. 1987). Although these remains, which from from several individuals, are very fragmentary, they are probably the best stratified and dated finds from this time from Southern Africa.

    #1264

    Story of Sapiens
    Keymaster

    List of other possible specimens, from [9] & [10].

    ALB 295 KRM5/1
    ALB 296 KRM5/2
    ALB 297 KRM5/3
    ALB 298 KRM5/4
    ALB 299 KRM5/5
    SAM 6102 614
    SAM 6113 2097
    SAM 6096 16721
    SAM 6109 17682
    SAM 6111 26731
    SAM 6112 26732
    SAM 6097 27575
    SAM 6094 27576
    SAM 6095 27577
    STA 1 TSAS E50
    STA 2 CP1 HS1
    STA 5 Y44 SMS 1SH
    Sq 01/C1
    Sq A2/1
    Sq A2/3
    Aq A1/4 |
    ‘Lower part of SAS member’
    Sq A2/2
    Sq B1/3
    KRM 1A H51, CP1|
    KRM 1A E50, TSAS
    KRM 1A E50, AV
    ‘Cave 1 SAS member’
    ‘Cave 1 uppermost SAS levels’

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